Types of Motivational Theories. The five motivational dimensions are (Sheth, 1975): (1) functional motives, (2) aesthetic-emotional motives, (3) social motives, (4) situational motives, and (5) curiosity motives. Psycho-analytical theories 4. A structural principle is needed to explain the dynamic interactions of needs and their fulfillments. L. W. Porter and V. F. Mitchell, "Comparative Study of Need Satisfactions in Military and Business Hierarchies," Journal of Applied Psychology, 51 (April 1967), R. D. Pritchard, "Equity Theory: A Review and Critique," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4 (May 1969), 176-211. B. Clark," Motivation in Work Groups: A Tentative View," Human Organization, 13, (1960-61), 198-208. Read More about How to Lead Effective Virtual Meetings: Resources for Managers and Business Leaders. J. The need achievement model (Table 1) attributes the strength of motivation to the cognitive expectation that the action will result in the consequence. As indicated in Table 1, the summation of Ts and Tf provides the tendency or motive to achieve (Ta), which may be derived from the given algebraic relationship: Ta = (Ms - Mf) (Ps - Ps2). ), Industry and Society, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946. Absence of necessary attributes gives rise to dissatisfaction, while the presence of motivating attributes leads to satisfaction. Further, note that within each of the five motivational dimensions subclasses exist for different product classes. Equity theory (Adams, 1965) predicts that differences in the input/output ratio bring about a change in the desired goal state. The combination of product attributes forms the total functional utility of a product. 1. At Ohio University, we understand how important an MBA can be to advancing your career. In this unit you will be Many psychological theories come under the label of expectancy-value models: subjective expected utility theory (Edwards, 1954), social learning theory (Rotter, 1954), motivation theory (Atkinson, 1964), and attitude theories (e.g., Rosenberg, 1956; Fishbein, 1967). In all cases, consumers want to reach certain goal states and the products are instrumental in reaching the goals. Third, Jacoby (1976) emphasizes not to overlook that the desired outcomes of a behavior are influenced by "motivational inputs". Ps and Is may have low levels and, hence, re-suit in low levels of the strength of the motive to achieve success (Ts). In this model (eq. J. P. Campbell and R. D. Pritchard, "Motivation Theory in Industrial and Organizational Psychology," in M. D. Dunnette (ed. The selection of a product may be triggered by situational determinants such as availability, price discount, and/or accessibility. It is our hypothesis that the ranges of equity (upper and lower limits) may well be measured by the expectancy-value type of model (Table 1) for two reasons: (1) The expectancy component of the model is general, comprehensive and brand specific. In first phase, an initial literature review will be presented that will enable a wide range of literature to be evaluated in order to achieve a full understanding of the topic under consideration that is the impacts of social media advertising on consumers buying behavior. 1), overall preference or total utility a product class satisfies and the evaluation of these motives may be written as, EQUATION (1) Uj is the utility of product class j that satisfies m motives (Mij), and Vi is the evaluation of the m motives on a favorable-unfavorable scale. Need achievement resembles Maslow's (1970) self-actualization motive in a number of ways. At the heart of the scientific study of marketing are key insights about consumer behavior, or why consumers buy and act the way they do. Repetitive brand or product choice triggered by depletion of stock is not relevantly described and predicted by our motivational model. Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you: Compare the difference between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. 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Attitude is a psychological variable that is known to affect the purchase decision process … This expectation is thought to be a subjective probability. G's DECA Competition Indicators Explain motivational theories that impact buying behavior. Situational motives are not motives in the sense of long-term desires to reach a certain goal. The other principle is the deprivation/domination principle, which states that the most deficient need is the most important need. 1. J. S. Armstrong, "Role Conflict in Marketing or the Ox and the Fox," Oslo: Symposium, "New Directions in Marketing," 1976. At times, the findings have been used to support two apparently contradictory hypotheses. Founded in 1804, Ohio University is the ninth oldest public university in the United States. The combination of product attributes forms the total functional utility of a product. Aesthetic-emotional motives are the style, design, luxury, and comfort of a product (class). Marketers have been able to use motivation-need theory very effectively by creating an artificial need for consumers. The Impact on Consumer Buying Behaviour: Cognitive Dissonance Manoj Kumar Sharma Bus. This is especially true for the functional, social, and curiosity motives. Functional motives are related to the technical functions the product performs. OPERATIONALIZATION The elicitation of the motivational dimensions can be done in two subsequent pilot surveys constituting depth interviews and other non-attributive methods. The application of the equity concept of consumer behavior may be restricted to some aspects of consumption. It has to be emphasized that the motivational model suggested here is mainly applicable to consumers' product choices, involving large financial outlays or high perceived social and/or physical risk. Then, within the mode, the consumer selects a specific brand. Question: Discuss Motivational Theories That Impact Buying Behavior? Needs are seen as the force that arouses motivated behavior and it is assumed that, to understand human motivation… This composite measure, U., is expected to cover the five dimensions outlined above. The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. Out of 11000 new products introduced by 77 companies, only 56% are present after 5 years. (2) It ignores the interdependency between product and brand, that is, the desire to consider a product class and then to engage in brand(s) selection. Marketers must understand that long lags between initial intention and the completion of the action allows consumers plenty of time to talk themselves out of a purchase or question the outcome of the purchase. In other words, the basic needs/motives are linked to behavior through a theory of motivation which asserts that (i) deprivation is followed by gratification; (ii) less potent needs emerge upon the gratification of the more preponderant ones (Maslow, 1970); (iii) and it is a dynamic process where deprivation is hypothesized to lead to domination, which leads to gratification that culminates in the activation of the next higher order need in the echelon. Individual consumers differ not only in their evaluation of motivational dimensions (Vi), but also in the saliency of these dimensions over time. • Discuss motivational theories that impact buying behavior. Discuss motivational theories that impact buying behavior... what does this mean in marketing? Organizational Behavior “Motivation” Introduction. The different theories on consumer behavior and the relevant research conducted on the understanding of the consumer ... stages of consumer buying behavior . Such equity-based motivational forces include sensitivity of consumers toward primarily price, time and effort expended (e.g., Gabor and Granger, 1966). In the decision process the consumer will avoid brands that give rise to dissatisfaction through the application of the conjunctive decision rule. First, when marketing a product to consumers, marketers must associate a purchase with a positive result, and that result must be specific. A. Howard and J. N. Sheth, The Theory of Buyer Behavior, New York: Wiley, 1969. T. Roselius, "Consumer Rankings of Risk Reduction Methods,'' Journal of Marketing, 35 (January 1971), 56-61. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 5, 1978 Pages 590-595. Here are 5 popular theories of motivation that can help you increase workplace productivity… 1. First, the inequity of the seller-buyer relation may give rise to consumer dissatisfaction and the motivation to restore equity. Consumers are motivated to prioritize purchases toward the base of the hierarchy, so it is vital that companies draft a message that instills a sense of need or urgency in consumers. As Schewe (1973) points out, "The greatest problem appears to be determining a valid and reliable measure of the need achievement construct" (Schewe, 1973, p. 33). Theories of consumer behavior address important issues, such as how consumers purchase as individuals versus how they purchase in groups, the role of emotions in purchasing decisions, post-purchase attitudes, and the role of object utility. (3) It fails to note that some repetitive buying behavior is influenced by simple S-R relationships, or may even be stochastic, making motivational models too elaborate or irrelevant for this kind of buying behavior. Your ideal self is how you would like to see yourself—whether it’s prettier, more popular, more eco-conscious, or more “goth,” and others’ self-concept, or how you think others see you, also influences your purchase behavior. Needs, in Murray's concepts, are hypothetical constructs directing behavior toward certain goals, or end states. A similar, but shorter, review of the three categories is given in Van Raaij (1976). At every stage, marketers make such assumptions or conclusions about how consumers may react to their offers or how the potential buyers may behave. Inputs, on the other hand, are those motivational forces other than perceived functional consequences which influence the selection of one specific behavioral alternative over the other available alternatives" (Jacoby, 1976, p. 1049). M. A. Fishbein, "Attitude and the Prediction of Behavior,'' in M. A. Fishbein (ed.). In the generic choice process, the consumer essentially compares products on a different set of dimensions for each product, while in the specific choice process the same set of dimensions apply for all brands within the product class. We will try to find answers to these questions before we apply this concept to consumer motivation. There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theorie… Maslow's approach is a theory of motivation, in that it links basic needs-motives to general behavior (Wahba and Bridwell, 1976). In another study, again, contrary to what Maslow hypothesized, Mobley and Locke (1970) concluded that extreme satisfaction and dissatisfaction depend on the importance attached to them, and not importance determining satisfaction and dissatisfaction. According to the theory, specifi… 2. This is the gratification/activation principle. E. C. Tolman, Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1932. 3, 1969 (second edition). J. W. Atkinson, An Introduction to Motivation, New York: Van Nostrand, 1964. The basic idea behind goal setting theory is that humans translate motivational forces into observable behavior through the process of setting and pursuing goals. Test. Ohio University is regionally accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. As with Herzberg's (1966) two-factor model, an equitable relation as perceived by the consumer prevents the elicitation of dissatisfaction. Armstrong (1976) provides some examples of the restoration of equity between consumers and marketers. of Bus. Classifications of needs, as provided by McDougall or Murray look similar to classifications of elements in chemistry, but lack their strictly defined structure and usefulness. J. F. Engel, D. T. Kollat and R. D. Blackwell, Consumer Behavior, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973 (second edition). A. H. Maslow, Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper & Row, 1970, (second edition). Curiosity motives are motives that are supposed to prompt trials of new and/or innovative products. A desired state is triggered in the comparison of one's own position and the position of "relevant others" on the various functional as well as non-functional utility dimension(s). The need achievement concept is only applicable in cases where the consumer perceives some risk of failure. For the latter case, multi-attribute attitude and preference models may hold better predictions for brand choice within the product class. The concept of equity may be explicitly stated as the even exchange of values such that what is received is presumed to be equal to what is given (Adams, 1965). W. H. Mobley and E. A. Locke, "The Relationship of Value Importance to Satisfaction"," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 5(September 1970), 463-83. It seems to be influenced more by Lewin's field theory in that it involves the perceptual analysis of (1) alternatives with their (2) desirabilities and (3) expectancies, and their (4) outcomes in the immediate psychological field. It is our hypothesis that the ranges of equity (upper and lower limits) may well be measured by the expectancy-value type of model (Table 1) for two reasons: (1) The expectancy component of the model is general, comprehensive and brand specific. The main difference, however, is that it includes the probability of attaining a goal and a probability of failure. As organizational theory states, employees need to be motivated to actualize their potential and there are several ways of enabling them and empowering them to do so. The second type of attributes (facilitators) elicit the disjunctive decision rule to select brands with facilitating (above threshold) values on other attributes. (2) Until the time that the law of diminishing returns sets in or depleting raw material resources make "abundant" consumption difficult, there is a "need" to buy and possess more. PLAY. L. W. Porter and E. E. Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance, Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1968. Jacoby suggests the partitioning of the evaluation component into input (or antecedent) and output (or consequent) "values". Motivation is of particular importance in influencing employee’s behavior within an organization. Socio cultural theories W. H. Mobley and E. A. Locke, "The Relationship of Value Importance to Satisfaction"," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 5(September 1970), 463-83. ), Industry and Society, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1946. J. S. Armstrong, "Role Conflict in Marketing or the Ox and the Fox," Oslo: Symposium, "New Directions in Marketing," 1976. J. N. Sheth, "A Psychological Model of Travel Mode Selection,'' Urbana, IL: Bureau of Economic and Business Research of the University of Illinois, Working Paper #291, November 1975. V. H. Vroom, Work and Motivation, New York: Wiley, 1964. In the depth interview method no particular forms and orders of motives should be elicited with the help of probing questions, incomplete sentences and the Kelly grid method. Social motives are related to the impact that consumption makes on relevant others. Murray, however, distinguished a directional aspect and an arousal component that actually kicks the behavior off and that can be motivated in a number of ways. The consumer may try a new product; however, his repeat-purchase may be independent of such trials. A. H. Maslow, "Higher and Lower Order Needs," in C. L. Stacey and M. F. DeMartino (eds. There are several theories out there to explore and each one focuses on a different set of biological, social, emotional, and cognitive aspects that impact behavior. The avoidance tendency (Tf) may be related to some unsatisfactory product attributes (inhibitors) and the approach tendency (Ts) may be related to other, satisfactory product attributes (facilitators). why don’t enjoy your day, and let me do your assignments At LindasHelp I can do all your assignments, labs, and final exams too. As indicated in Table 1, the summation of Ts and Tf provides the tendency or motive to achieve (Ta), which may be derived from the given algebraic relationship: Ta = (Ms - Mf) (Ps - Ps2). EVALUATION OF MASLOW'S NEED HIERARCHY Despite its vagueness and lack of adequate empirical support (Wahba and Bridwell, 1976), Maslow's need hierarchy has influenced the work of numerous psychologists (Argyris, 1964; Clark, 1960; Dichter, 1964; Leavitt, 1964; McGregor, 1960; Schein, 1965). ... , Herzberg concluded that there are two job conditions independent of each other that affect the behavior differently. 1. Finally, contrary to the postulate of need achievement, motives are not stable behavioral dispositions, though they may well be partly learned. Cultural influences can affect the buying behavior of the individual. The sources of motivation can be experienced as either internal in the form of push motivation or external as in the case of pull motivation. Motivation-need theories are reviewed, their implications to consumer behavior investigated, and the various findings and concepts integrated in formulating a model of choice prediction. ), Understanding Human Motivation, Cleveland/New York: The World Publishing Company, 1965. Similar to the deprivation/domination principle, the presence of inhibitors causes dissatisfaction and (extending the above principle) this dissatisfaction cannot be compensated for by facilitators. An overview of these theories can be found in Van Raaij (1977). Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory. Instead, consumption is influenced by relative deprivation compared with "relevant other consumers". Maslow initially postulated that high satisfaction or dissatisfaction is given high ranked importance (Maslow, 1965). Here, an inequitable relation motivates the consumer to restore equity, that means he is motivated to bring his consumption level and pattern into agreement with that of his reference group. 1. Kent Hunt, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 590-595. 2. Needs, in Murray's concepts, are hypothetical constructs directing behavior toward certain goals, or end states. Modern luxury carmakers are especially good at highlighting the safety and security features of their vehicles over the aesthetic. This relative deprivation may trigger the dominance of the desire "to keep up" with the reference group. How Do Psychological Factors Play a Role in Consumer Behaviour? This is especially true for the functional, social, and curiosity motives. The product class is evaluated in terms of the fundamental values of the consumer in the emotive areas of fear, social concern, respect for quality of life, appreciation of fine arts, religion, and other emotional feelings. The process of motivation is defined as the internal energy or drive that stimulates an individual to act in a particular way. If the functional goal of the purchase of a car is its service and economy, say, as opposed to status or a combination of all these, then these consequences constitute the desired outcomes. Marketers who can capture the impulsive thought and close the sale will have the most success. Third are suggested impulse purchases, such as a warranty for an electronic device. As a solution, he proposes another behavior-satisfaction dimension orthogonal to the facilitator-inhibitor dimension (Jacoby, 1971). Learn. M. A. Wahba and J. G. Bridwell, "Maslow Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15 (April 1976), 212-40. A. Howard and J. N. Sheth, The Theory of Buyer Behavior, New York: Wiley, 1969. C. P. Alderfer, "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs," Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4a(May 1969), 142-75. Consumer behavior theories predict how consumers make purchasing decisions and show marketers how best to capitalize on predictable behaviors. According to Smith & Cronje (1992), the way Maslow’s theory is explained relies on the fact that people want to increase what they want to achieve in life and their needs are prioritized according to their importance. A person may buy a product for a number of motives. E. E. Lawler, Pay and Organizational Effectiveness: A Psychological View, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. E. C. Tolman, Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men, New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1932. On the other hand, and equitable relation is a necessary but not a sufficient prerequisite for consumer satisfaction. Marketers can learn several lessons from the Theory of Reasoned Action. (i) Consumer Behaviour: Consumer behaviour is defined as “all psychological social and physical behaviour of potential customers as they become aware of, evaluate, purchase, consume, and tell others about products and services.” Consumer behaviour involves both individual and group processes. 3, 1969 (second edition). His need hierarchy is by no means definitive, and is rather out of focus in comparison with the role of learning, perception, values, and expectations in human behavior (Atkinson, 1964). Why do we need to learn about consumer buying behavior?The simple answer is that no longer can we take the customers for granted. Each assumes that the manager’s role is to organize resources, including people, to best benefit the company. A distinction is sometimes made between deficiency and growth needs. We will try to find answers to these questions before we apply this concept to consumer motivation. K. 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