By these treaties Sweden ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues[16] and lost the Baltic provinces and the southern part of Swedish Pomerania. The Western powers, Great Britain and France, became caught up in the separate War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), which broke out over the Bourbon Philip of Anjou's succession to the Spanish throne and a possible joining of France and Spain. For wars with similar names, see, Campaigns and territorial changes 1700–1709 (left) and 1709–1721 (right), 1702–1710: Russia and the Baltic provinces. These became known as Kronstadt and Kronslot. Sweden proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. http://bit.ly/WatchEXP___________Thanks for participating in this week's discussion! Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, while Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania. [22] August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. To place pressure on Sweden, Russia sent a large fleet to the Swedish east coast in July 1719. James answers questions from our Patreon supporters in this special edition of Lies!Support us on Patreon! p. 244. On 21–22 May 1713 a Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå (Pernaja) and constructed fortifications there. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. The Great Northern War was a profound event in European history and has had far too little attention in the English speaking world. 57. Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. When peace was concluded with Denmark, the anti-Swedish coalition had already fallen apart, and Denmark was not in a military position to negotiate a return of her former eastern provinces across the sound. Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. Swedish allies included Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish magnates under Stanisław I Leszczyński (1704–1710) and Cossacks under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa (1708–1710). In 1697, Sweden was a great power until Charles XI died; he left the entire empire in the hands of his 14-year-old son, Charles XII. A major attack on 15 July 1705 ended in the deaths of more than 500 Swedish men, or a third of its forces[26]. There, under protection of the Russian battlefleet, the Russian galley fleet was split into three groups. [40], After the failure of 1712, Peter the Great ordered that further campaigns in war-ravaged regions of Finland with poor transportation networks were to be performed along the coastline and the seaways near the coast. http://bit.ly/SubToECPlay games with us on Extra Play! The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe. The formal conclusion of the Great Northern War came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm (1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad (1721). "Poltava: The battle that changed the world. Despite a continued Swedish naval presence and strong patrols to protect the coast, small Russian raids took place in 1716 at Öregrund, while in July 1717 a Russian squadron landed troops at Gotland who raided for supplies. ", Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 22:55. The Russian galley fleet arrived to the area on 29 June but stayed idle until 26–27 July when, under the leadership of Peter, Russian galleys managed to run the blockade making use of calm weather, which immobilized the Swedish battlefleet while losing only one galley of roughly 100. Britain would briefly switch sides and supported Sweden before leaving the war. Russian victories at Erastfer and Nöteborg (Shlisselburg) provided access to Ingria in 1703, where Peter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyen, guarding the mouth of the River Neva. The defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until the Russians landed at their flank at Sandviken, which forced Armfelt to retire towards Porvoo (Borgå) after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. Before the Civil War, the vast majority (approximately 90 percent) of African Americans lived in the South. The documentary was a co-production of the Imperial War Museum, the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and … The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia as the new dominant power in the Baltic region and as a new major force in European politics. The adventures of a single dad and his weird Alaskan family. Poland and Saxony together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga,[35] at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Tsardom by the capitulation of Estonia and Livonia. Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. During the same period, Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). This resulted in Great Britain declaring war on Sweden in 1717. The Ottoman Empire temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden and intervened against Peter I. Pitirim Sorokin "Social and Cultural Dynamics, vol.3", Richard Brzezinski. Fighting in the field, the Swedish army (which during the Thirty Years' War contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown[17]) was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden opted to blockade Saint Petersburg in 1705. 22 November 1964. http://bit.ly/EHPatreon (--More below)Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October. [19], Charles XII of Sweden first focused on attacking Denmark. Created by Minty Lewis, Wendy Molyneux, Lizzie Molyneux-Logelin. Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. [49], Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. pp. The documentary was a co-production of the Imperial War Museum, the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Commission. Since the Russian galley fleet was not able to raid the Swedish coast, with the exception of Umeå, which was plundered on 18 September, the fleet instead supported the advance of the Russian army, which led to hastily withdrawal by the Swedish army from Raahe (Brahestad) to Tornio (Torneå). Biopic of Peter I, Czar of Russia, from childhood in 1682 to the Great Northern War against Sweden during the 1700s. See more ideas about war, northern, swedish army. Patkul was also extradited and executed by breaking on the wheel in 1707, an incident which, given his diplomatic immunity, infuriated opinion against the Swedish king, who was then expected to win the war against the only hostile power remaining, Tsar Peter's Russia.[24]. The Great Northern War was fought during the years 1700-1721 between Sweden and a coalition of countries who sought to carve up the Swedish Baltic Sea Empire between themselves. The transport's varied career took another turn when she was acquired by the Navy from the War Department 3 August 1921. His ambitions to transform the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth into an absolute monarchy were not realized due to the zealous nature of the Polish nobility and the previously initiated laws that decreased the power of the monarch. In addition to the rivalries in the anti-Swedish coalition, there was an inner-Swedish rivalry between Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and Frederick I of Hesse-Cassel for the Swedish throne. Pursued by coalition forces, Stenbock and his army was trapped and surrendered during the Siege of Tönning. Bromley, ed., Wilson, Derek. These terms were laid out in the Treaty of Adrianople (1713). To Society Members, we offer carefully-researched Reference Sheets, a quarterly GN Goat publication, an annual calendar, discounts on model kits, books, CD's and other items, and an annual convention to discover all that is the Great Northern Railway. The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten on 30 November 1718 (OS). In January 1719, George I, Augustus and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at reducing Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and Sweden's Age of Liberty began.[16]. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. George I of Great Britain and the Electorate of Hanover joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia joined it in 1715. This successful invasion enabled Charles XII to dethrone Augustus II and coerce the Polish sejm to replace him with Stanisław I Leszczyński in 1704. However, like so often, Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended. Lybecker was soon recalled to Stockholm for a hearing and Armfelt was ordered to the command of the army. Charles XII led the Swedish army. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony-Poland-Lithuania. Murhanenkeli. George I of Great Britain and Hanover concluded three alliances in 1715: the Treaty of Berlin with Denmark–Norway, the Treaty of Stettin with Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Treaty of Greifswald with Russia. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia incorporated the Oder estuary (Stettin Lagoons), Russia secured the Baltic Provinces, and Denmark strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. Large stores of supplies and munitions were transported from Vyborg and Saint Petersburg to the new base of operations. Could Sweden have won the Great Northern War? Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts When Wismar surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden's Baltic and German possessions were lost. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. Meanwhile, the forces of Peter I had recovered from defeat at Narva and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where they cemented Russian access to the Baltic Sea by founding Saint Petersburg in 1703. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. Augustus II the Strong, elector of Saxony and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of King John III Sobieski in 1696. They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10 and 17 October. When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. Great Northern War is part of WikiProject Estonia, a project to maintain and expand Estonia-related subjects on Wikipedia. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death in 1718, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. The Great War, a 1964 BBC documentary series The Great War (YouTube channel) , a YouTube channel dedicated to covering the events of World War I and its aftermath The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century , a 4-part 1996 PBS documentary series about World War I Russian breach of the blockade at Hangö forced the Swedish fleet to withdraw to prevent the Russian fleet from reaching Sweden itself. [41] Nominally under the command of Apraksin, but accompanied Peter the Great, a fleet of coastal ships together with 12,000 men – infantry and artillery – began the campaign by sailing from Kronstadt on 2 May 1713; a further 4,000 cavalry were later sent overland to join with the army. New animated comedy The Great North follows the Alaskan adventures of the Tobin family. Charles Frederick, son of Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp (a cousin of Charles XII)[nb 1] and Hedvig Sophia, daughter of Charles XI of Sweden, had been the Swedish heir since 1702. With Nick Offerman, Jenny Slate, Will Forte, Dulcé Sloan. This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal. By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. [42], The bulk of the Russian forces moved along the coast towards Borgå and the forces of Lybecker, whom Armfelt had joined. However the ensuing Pruth River Campaign resulted in a disaster for the Russians as Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth river. At this point, in 1707, Peter offered to return everything he had so far occupied (essentially Ingria) except Saint Petersburg and the line of the Neva,[16] to avoid a full-scale war, but Charles XII refused. Peter I took advantage of this by redeploying a large number of men from Ingria to Ukraine.[27]. This publication is intended to open up this history in a way previously not available in English. Frederick IV and Augustus II were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII at the Battle of Poltava. Catch the Series Premiere on Sunday, February 14 at 8:30/7:30c on FOX! Charles XII then turned south to meet Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Therefore, the war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad between Russia and Sweden in Uusikaupunki (Nystad) on 30 August 1721 (OS). The ruler of the Russian empire: Peter the Great, the King of Danes: Fredrick IV, and the King of Poland-Lithuania: Augustus, had their share of interests in the Swedish empire. He did not achieve his main goal: to regain the former eastern Danish provinces lost to Sweden in the course of the 17th century. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. The narrator was Michael Redgrave, with readings by Marius Goring, Ralph Richardson, Cyril Luckham, Sebastian Shaw and … The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. [49], After the death of Charles XII, Sweden still refused to make peace with Russia on Peter's terms. Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow in 1702 and in the Battle of Pultusk in 1703. Russia left Poland in the spring of 1706, abandoning artillery but escaping from the pursuing Swedes, who stopped at Pinsk. Charles Frederick was married to a daughter of Peter I, Anna Petrovna. He was determined to gain the Oder estuary with its access to the Baltic Sea for the Brandenburgian core areas, which had been a state goal for centuries. His meeting with Peter the Great in Rawa Ruska in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden were made, became legendary for its decadence. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. The Gottorp party succumbed and Ulrike Eleonora, wife of Frederick I, transferred power to her husband in May 1720. Denmark contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp and more on other fronts. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. The Russian mobilization system was ineffective and the expanding nation needed to be defended in many locations. in J.S. He greatly expanded the size of Russia during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. If you would like to participate, you can edit the article attached to this page, or visit the project page, where you can join the project and/or contribute to the discussion. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Peter the Great became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689. 393ff, 409ff, 420–445, had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik", Treaties of Stockholm (Great Northern War), Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, "Tacitus.nu, Örjan Martinsson. Charles spent the years 1702–06 in a prolonged struggle with Augustus II the Strong; he had already inflicted defeat on him at Riga in June 1701 and took Warsaw the following year, but trying to force a decisive defeat proved elusive. In 1700 which power was the He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora. Russia was able to mobilize a larger army but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. While the result of the battle is contested, it ended Russian galley raids in 1720. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it. Alarmed by the Russian preparations Lybecker requested naval units to be brought in as soon as possible in the spring of 1713. A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, David R. Stone. The GNRHS is dedicated to the preservation, study, and history of one of America's greatest railroads, the Great Northern Railway. [45], In 1714, Charles XII returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Stralsund in November. The Great Northern War lasted from 1700 to 1721. [44], In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. Peter the Great, whose forces were spread all around the Baltic Sea, envisioned hegemony in East Central Europe and sought to establish naval bases as far west as Mecklenburg. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and assured that Sweden was to retain Wismar and northern Swedish Pomerania. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul managed to ally Russia with Denmark and Saxony by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye, and in 1700 the three powers attacked. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava and fled to the Ottoman Empire while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[33]. [50], After the treaty of Frederiksborg in early 1720, Sweden was no longer at war with Denmark, which allowed more forces to be placed against the Russians. Charles XII moved from Saxony into Russia to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. The book describes the development of the Swedish Army during the Great Northern War, 1700-1721, when Sweden fought against a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Poland-Saxony. One group headed for the coast of Uppland, the second to the vicinity of Stockholm, and the last to coast of Södermanland. Sep 20, 2015 - Explore Kaptain Kobold's board "Great Northern War" on Pinterest. Finland was returned to Sweden, while the majority of Russia's conquests (Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm and the bulk of Karelia) were ceded to the tsardom. [43], In 1714 far greater Swedish naval assets were diverted towards Finland, which managed to cut the coastal sea route past Hangö cape already in early May 1714. [36], The war between Russia and Sweden continued after the disaster of Poltava in 1709, though the shattered Swedish continental army could provide very little help. After Poltava, Peter the Great and Augustus the Strong allied again in the Treaty of Thorn (1709); Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway with Augustus the Strong in the Treaty of Dresden (1709); and Russia with Denmark–Norway in the subsequent Treaty of Copenhagen. At the same time, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet had also set course towards Denmark. After years of marches and fighting around Poland he finally had to invade Augustus' hereditary Saxony to take him out of the war. Danish force", The Northern War of 1700–1721. Could Sweden have won the Great Northern War? [52], When Sweden finally was at peace with Hanover, Great Britain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark–Norway, she hoped that the anti-Russian sentiments of the Vienna parties and France would culminate in an alliance that would restore her Russian-occupied eastern provinces. This is when the enemies of the Swedish empire realized that it was the time to get control of the lands of the Swedish empire. Later in July 1720 a squadron from the Swedish battlefleet engaged the Russian galley fleet in the battle of Grengam. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. [34] Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. Was Charles XII actually assassinated? [52], Saxe-Poland-Lithuania and Sweden did not conclude a formal peace treaty; instead, they renewed the Peace of Oliva that had ended the Second Northern War in 1660.[54]. Together they carried a landing force of nearly 30,000 men. This caused severe trouble for Russian supply route to Turku and beyond as supplies had to be carried overland. The Great Northern War (22 February 1700-10 September 1721) was a conflict in which a Russian-led coalition successfully contested the supremacy of Sweden in Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe.The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, and Russia became the new dominant power in the Baltics and as a major force in European politics. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. Charles XII opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten in 1718. As negotiations for peace did not progress, the Russian galleys were once again sent to raid the Swedish coast in 1721, targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle and Piteå. [47] Charles was then at war with much of Northern Europe, and Stralsund was doomed. Great Northern also took a Congressional party on a long Pacific inspection, touching at Hong Kong, Honolulu, Cavite, and then returning to San Francisco, in the summer of 1920. The Nyen fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who built nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Hanover, whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain, allied with Russia. The Great Northern War was a series of battles fought to contest the Supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern and Central Europe. A smaller Russian force advanced on the Swedish capital but was stopped at the battle of Stäket on 13 August. Russia gained its Baltic territories and became one of the greatest powers in Europe. The war began when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony and Russia, sensing an opportunity as Sweden was ruled by the young Charles XII, declared war on the Swedish Empire and launched a threefold attack on Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, and Swedish Ingria. The foreign interventions in Russia during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo (1617). The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. The Battle of Narva dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterward provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. Great Northern War. However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Conflict between mainly the Swedish and Russian empires in 1700–1721, This article is about the 18th-century war. The Ottoman Empire defeated the Russian-Moldavian army in the Pruth River Campaign, but that peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway and Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Lützen 1632: Climax of the Thirty Years' War. The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. Lybecker's army of 7000 infantry and 3000 cavalry avoided contact with the Russians and instead kept withdrawing further inland without even contesting the control of Borgå region or the important coastal road between Helsinki (Helsingfors) and Turku (Åbo). Frederik IV of Denmark–Norway directed his first attack against Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[21]. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues (transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea). [20], Charles XII was now able to speedily deploy his army to the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea and face his remaining enemies: besides the army of Augustus II in Livonia, an army of Russian tsar Peter I was already on its way to invade Swedish Ingria,[20] where it laid siege to Narva in October. Denmark and Saxony joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne. In 1705, repeated Swedish attacks were made against Russian fortifications in the area, to little effect. ( 1964-11-22) The Great War is a 26-episode documentary series from 1964 on the First World War. [18] Simultaneously, Augustus II's forces advanced through Swedish Livonia, captured Dünamünde and laid siege to Riga.

Coyote Grill Parts, Iyke Ultimate Love, Dodge Viper Rims For Sale, Transformers G1 Reissue Walmart 2020 Blaster, Benefits Of Paying Off Mortgage Early Calculator, Keelung To Taichung, Pa Boating Laws, St Paul's Episcopal Church In Delray Beach Fl,

Add Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *