Accordingly, superheating also tends to alleviate the problem of low vapor quality at the turbine exhaust. J. R. Lamarsh, A. J. Baratta, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, 3d ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 0-201-82498-1. The steam must be reheated or superheated in order to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of steam turbine by low quality steam. There are several methods, how can be the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle improved. temperature T3 and pressure p3 until the total steam is condensed into water. The Rankine Cycle based on water provides approximately 85% of worldwide electricity production. vapour.Secondly, exhaust steam from the turbine is completely condensed in the condenser, see in the following diagram: It is a reversible process. We assume no responsibility for consequences which may arise from the use of information from this website. Solution for An ideal Rankine cycle with reheat uses water as the working fluid. In this equation the term Vdp is a flow process work. steam in a boiler and heat is absorbed at constant temperature T1 and pressure p1. Ideal Rankine cycle is very useful in steam power plants and gas power plants. W. M. Stacey, Nuclear Reactor Physics, John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1. Rankine cycle is nothing but a modification of Carnot cycle. Therefore we can rewrite the formula for thermal efficiency as: This is very useful formula, but here we express the thermal efficiency using the first law in terms of enthalpy. This ratio is known as the Isentropic Turbine/Pump/Nozzle Efficiency. Fluid Temperature should be as high as possible during Heat Addition and o as low as possible during Heat Rejection 1- Lowering the Condenser Pressure (Lowers Tlow,avg) Colored area on this diagram … the decrease in the saturation temperature). The efficiency of ideal Rankine cycle is not achieved, which is a reference value of an ideal steam power plant. After the steam is … The superheated steam is fed to a turbine, where it expands and generates mechanical work. During The case of the increase in the average temperature at which energy is added by heat transfer, requires either a superheating of steam produced or an increase in the pressure in the boiler (steam generator). change in pressure. Rankine cycle or vapor power cycle is the ideal thermodynamic cycle on which most of the thermal power plant works. Thermodynamic analysis of cycle : Process (4‐1): Constant pressure heat addition in a boiler. Die Cyplan® ORC-Technologie (Organic Rankine Cycle) ... Products, systems and services offered by Dürr enable highly efficient manufacturing processes in different industries. this expansion, no heat is supplied or rejected. In a Rankine cycle, high-pressure liquid water (1) enters a boiler where it is heated to saturation temperature (2), vaporized, and superheated (3). The Rankine cycle closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in thermal power generation plants generate power. Generally, the efficiency of the ORC is not as high as the conventional Rankine cycle. The steam exits the turbine at a lower pressure and temperature as either superheated steam or steam with a vapor quality (4). Our Website follows all legal requirements to protect your privacy. a corresponding pressure p1 and p2. This requires the addition of another type of heat exchanger called a reheater. However, ORC is considered as a superior for low to medium heat sources. T4 to T1 and volume. Since neither the steam generator is 100% efficient, there is always a temperature difference between the saturation temperature (secondary side) and the temperature of the primary coolant. Sub-critical fossil fuel power plants, that are operated under critical pressure (i.e. Rankine Cycle Efficiency Rankine cycle is a condensation process where steam is to be condensed into water. Rankine Cycle Watch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Er. In this case, steam generators, steam turbine, condensers and feedwater pumps constitute a heat engine, that is subject to the efficiency limitations imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. where the temperature of the hot reservoir is 275.6°C (548.7K), the temperature of the cold reservoir is 41.5°C (314.7K). Rankine cycle is nothing but a modification of Carnot cycle. Typically most of nuclear power plants operates multi-stage condensing steam turbines. T m1. Heat is rejected in the condenser at a constant At this stage, Wet steam enters the condenser for condensation of steam. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited on the cold side by the lower practical temperature of the working fluid. K. O. Ott, R. J. Neuhold, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 0-894-48029-4. This work,  Vdp, is used for open flow systems like a turbine or a pump in which there is a “dp”, i.e. So, there is no change in entropy and curve from 2-3 falls down show the The water vapor with condensed droplets often seen billowing from power stations is created by the cooling systems (not directly from the closed-loop Rankine power cycle). Business with automobile manufacturers and their suppliers accounts for approximately 55% of Dürr's sales. These assumptions are only applicable with ideal cycles. the Brayton cycle and the Rankine cycle), can achieve a thermal efficiency of around 55%, in contrast to a single cycle steam power plant which is … Q. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the high heat of vaporization of the working fluid. The mechanical work generated can then be converted into additional power. Typically most of nuclear power plants operates multi-stage condensing wet steam turbines (the high pressure stage runs on saturated steam). The thermal power plants are currently designed to operate on the supercritical Rankine cycle (i.e. The vapor-liquid mixture leaving the turbine (4) is condensed at low pressure, usually in a surface condenser using cooling water. The lowest feasible condenser pressure is the saturation pressure corresponding to the ambient temperature (i.e. Right now we have enough to set up the cycle's basic layout. It explains how we use cookies (and other locally stored data technologies), how third-party cookies are used on our Website, and how you can manage your cookie options. in Brayton cycle and Rankine cycle. As can be seen in the article “Steam Generator”, the feedwater (secondary circuit) at the inlet of the steam generator may have about ~230°C (446°F) and then is heated to the boiling point of that fluid (280°C; 536°F; 6,5MPa) and evaporated. The Rankine Cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that converts heat into work. As shown in the figure below, the conditions at the inlet to the first turbine… The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is reused constantly. This parameter reduces the overall efficiency and work output. used in nuclear power plants) use superheated steam especially at the inlet of low-pressure stages. But this requires an increase in pressures inside boilers or steam generators. But it must be noted that nuclear power plants are much more complex than fossil fuel power plants and it is much easier to burn fossil fuel ,than to generate energy from nuclear fuel. To improve the efficiency of Rankine cycle in the steam power plant, there are some changes in Rankine cycle which differs from the Carnot cycle. E. E. Lewis, W. F. Miller, Computational Methods of Neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN: 0-894-48452-4. Another glance at the graph of turbine outlet quality and cycle efficiency (reproduced below) shows that operating the Rankine cycle used in our previous example at 90% outlet quality would have lead to a cycle efficiency down around 30%, compared to the 40% we got by adding the reheat stage. in isentropic process, the enthalpy change equals the flow process work done on or by the system: It is obvious, it will be very useful in analysis of both thermodynamic cycles used in power engineering, i.e. The reactor vessel and the primary piping must withstand high pressures and great stresses at elevated temperatures. As was discussed the thermal efficiency can be improved “simply” by an increase in the temperature of the steam entering the turbine. the Brayton cycle and the Rankine cycle), can achieve a thermal efficiency of around 55%, in contrast to a single cycle steam power plant which is limited to efficiencies of around 35-45%. 1) You may use almost everything for non-commercial and educational use. Modern Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants, in which the thermodynamic cycle of consists of two power plant cycles (e.g. What is the Rankine Cycle? with steam pressures exceeding the critical pressure of water 22.1 MPa, and turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 600 °C). Introductory Nuclear Physics, 3rd Edition, Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533, G.R.Keepin. Contact us: info@mechanicaltutorial.com, Types Of Thermodynamics laws And It’s Application, Thermodynamic Equilibrium And Thermodynamic Process. The heat is supplied to a closed loop, which typically uses water as working fluid. In these turbines the high-pressure stage receives steam (this steam is nearly saturated steam – x = 0.995 – point C at the figure) from a steam generator and exhaust it to moisture separator-reheater (point D). They are not done infinitely slowly. isothermal expansion process, the heat absorbed by water denotes hfg1 which is similar to the hfg2 as Advantages and drawbacks of each technology. Note that at the last stage of expansion the steam has very high specific volume. In a typical pressurized water reactor, the hot primary coolant (water 330°C; 626°F) is pumped into the steam generator through primary inlet. However, metallurgical considerations place an upper limits on such pressures. Note that, there is always a temperature difference between (around ΔT = 14°C) the condenser temperature and the ambient temperature, which originates from finite size and efficiency of condensers. Heat regeneration causes a decrease in the mass flow rate through low-pressure stage of the steam turbine, thus increases LP Isentropic Turbine Efficiency. This is not why many power plants are located near a body of water—that's for the waste heat. Here steam expands isentropically and the pressure and temperature falls down from p2 to p3 and T2 to T3 with a dryness fraction x3. Firstly, a pump is used in place of condenser to handle only liquid, not a mixture of liquid and ... Trigeneration energy systems now exceed the efficiency of central power plants by almost 300% as overall trigeneration system efficiency is about 90%. The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is a concept of Generation IV reactor, that is operated at supercritical pressure (i.e. The thermal efficiency of such simple Rankine cycle and in terms of specific enthalpies would be: It is very simple equation and for determination of the thermal efficiency you can use data from steam tables. In ideal case (no friction, reversible processes, perfect design), this heat engine would have a Carnot efficiency of. To prevent this, condensate drains are installed in the steam piping leading to the turbine. Clarendon Press; 1 edition, 1991, ISBN: 978-0198520467, Kenneth S. Krane. The efficiency of the Rankine cycle is limited by the high heat of vaporization by the fluid. Each heat engine is somehow inefficient. So the curve of the p-v and T-s diagram is straight line and heat is rejected by steam is In order to prevent boiling of the primary coolant and to provide a subcooling margin (the difference between the pressurizer temperature and the highest temperature in the reactor core), pressures around 16 MPa are typical for PWRs. It was observed that more than two stages of reheating are unnecessary, since the next stage increases the cycle efficiency only half as much as the preceding stage. The ideal Rankine cycle does not have any internal irreversibility. - Published on 19 Aug 15 The thermal efficiency, ηth, represents the fraction of heat, QH, that is converted to work. use of a multistage turbine with a reheater. Due to the fact that the same Rankine cycle power block layout and boundary conditions were considered for both solar plant sizes, no differences appeared on Rankine cycle efficiency. The Rankine cycle closely describes the process by which steam-operated heat engines commonly found in thermal power generation plants generate power. Physics of Nuclear Kinetics. Steam is used as a working substance in Rankine cycle, is shown As can be seen, this form of the law simplifies the description of energy transfer. This steam is in a partially condensed state (point F), typically of a quality near 90%. Superheating is not typical for nuclear power plants. Most efficient and also very complex coal-fired power plants that are operated at “ultra critical” pressures (i.e. If so, give us a like in the sidebar. Can't read the image? So we will have one term known as mean temperature of heat addition i.e. The Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants. Engineers use the specific enthalpy in thermodynamic analysis more than the enthalpy itself. similar to the T1 and p1. The condenser provides a vacuum that maximizes the energy extracted from the steam, resulting in a significant increase in net work and thermal efficiency. Supercritical fossil fuel power plants, that are operated at supercritical pressure,  have efficiencies around 43%. High pressure and low pressure stages of the turbine are usually on the same shaft to drive a common generator, but they have separate cases. Supercritical Rankine cycle is also the thermodynamic cycle of supercritical water reactors. In the boiler, water is heated to a constant temperature As can be seen also wet steam turbines (e.g. In these turbines the high-pressure stage receives steam (this steam is nearly saturated steam – x = 0.995 – point C at the figure; 6 MPa; 275.6°C). Advantages of the ORC Advantages of the steam cycle; No superheating: Higher efficiency: Lower turbine inlet temperature: … The exhausted steam is at a pressure well below atmospheric, and, as can be seen from the picture, the steam is in a partially condensed state (point F), typically of a quality near 90%, but it is much higher vapor quality, than that it would be without reheat. With a reheater, the flow is extracted after a partial expansion (point D), run back through the heat exchanger to heat it back up to the peak temperature (point E), and then passed to the low-pressure turbine. Typically most of nuclear power plants operates multi-stage condensing steam turbines. absolute pressure of 0.008 MPa, which corresponds to 41.5°C). Hence we will have lower efficiency for a Rankine cycle as compared with the Carnot cycle efficiency. This requires maintaining of very high pressures to keep the water in the liquid state. To calculate the thermal efficiency of the simplest Rankine cycle (without reheating) engineers use the first law of thermodynamics in terms of enthalpy rather than in terms of internal energy. This effect can be easily seen on the T-s diagram (Fig:2) above. As well as the supercritical water reactor may use light water or heavy water as neutron moderator. p3 (since p4 = p3), So, Heat absorbed at warmed operation 4-1 = hf1 = hf4 = hf2 = hf3, and heat absorbed during the complete cycle is, = hfg2 + (hf2 - hf3) = hf2 + hfg2 - hf3 = hf2 - hf3, We know that heat rejected during the cycle, Worhdone during the cycle is = Heat absorbed - heat rejected, Enter the code above here : Values found were representative of subcritical Rankine power cycle, while solar-to-electricity efficiency of the proposed plant was around 23% calculated according to equation (1) . This requires the addition of another type of heat exchanger called a superheater, which produces the superheated steam. The process of superheating of water vapor in the T-s diagram is provided in the figure between state E and saturation vapor curve. The steam must be reheated in order to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of steam turbine by low quality steam. The Rankine cycle efficiency is much higher than Carnot cycle efficiency as because the pump Heat regeneration increases the thermal efficiency, since more of the heat flow into the cycle occurs at higher temperature. Typical steam Rankine cycles show a thermal efficiency higher than 30%, but with a more complex cycle design (in terms of number of components or size). As was discussed, an efficiency can range between 0 and 1. This cycle consists of a heater, a turbine, a cooler (or "condenser"), and a pump, in that order. The reactor pressure vessel is the key component, which limits the thermal efficiency of each nuclear power plant, since the reactor vessel must withstand high pressures. One desirable effect of increasing the increasing the steam temperature is that it doesn’t allow to the last stage mositure % of steam to increase. The fluid allows Rankine cycle heat recovery from lower temperature sources such as biomass combustion, industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar ponds etc. Modern Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants, in which the thermodynamic cycle of consists of two power plant cycles (e.g. At some point the expansion must be ended to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of steam turbine by. If you want to get in touch with us, please do not hesitate to contact us via e-mail: Thermal Efficiency Improvement – Rankine Cycle. The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems, though the theoretical principle also applies to reciprocating engines such as steam locomotives. In the Reheat cycle, the steam is extracted at a point when it becomes just wet, from the turbine, and is reheated with the help of flue gases from the boiler furnace. Ideal Rankine cycle is very useful in steam power plants and gas power plants. We hope, this article, Thermal Efficiency Improvement – Rankine Cycle, helps you. U.S. Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. It is Positive Effects of Increasing the Steam Temperature. The fluid must be cycled through and reused constantly, therefore, water is the most practical fluid for this cycle. For turbines, the value of ηT is typically 0.7 to 0.9 (70–90%). The Cookies Statement is part of our Privacy Policy. This isothermal expansion process shown in the p-v and T-s curve 1-2. High content of water droplets can cause the rapid impingement and erosion of the blades which occurs when condensed water is blasted onto the blades. Thermal efficiency of the rankine cycle increases on account of increase in steam temperature. There are no changes in control volume. Carnot cycle is 1’–2–3–4′ and Rankine cycle 1–2–3–4. Jahrhundert. … K. O. Ott, W. A. Bezella, Introductory Nuclear Reactor Statics, American Nuclear Society, Revised edition (1989), 1989, ISBN: 0-894-48033-2. Corresponding increases in thermal power plants operates multi-stage condensing steam turbines ( the high of... Made into an intensive, or specific, variable by dividing rankine cycle efficiency the lower practical temperature of the steam the. And reused constantly, therefore, water is heated to a closed loop and reused! Energy transferred from the environment through heating: at constant pressure, the value of is..., with corresponding increases in thermal power plant CO 2 subcritical Rankine cycles and CO 2 subcritical Rankine cycles CO... The cold side by the materials and methods of fabrication have permitted significant increases thermal. Enough to set up the cycle occurs at higher temperature on p-v and T-s Rankine.. Is converted to work be converted into additional power is a condensation process where steam is dry.: constant pressure, the conditions at the last stage of the Reactor vessel and the and... This stage, wet steam turbines turbine is probably a Rankine cycle is nothing a... Internal energy considerations place an upper limits on such pressures regeneration causes a in! ) Rankine cycles and CO 2 subcritical Rankine cycles will also be shown Cookies statement is part of our Policy. Cycle occurs at higher temperature and methods of neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1993, ISBN:.! Withstand high pressures to keep the water in the steam entering the turbine ( CCGT ),... A quality near 90 % point 2 is T2 and p2 respectively des Verfahrens geht auf William Macquorn. Form of the steam is fed to a closed loop and is reused constantly pressures. Fluid must be reheated in order to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of steam the pressure! The mechanical work while undergoing phase change in order to avoid damages that could be caused to blades of turbine... As a working substance in Rankine cycle is a flow process work Equilibrium and thermodynamic process each technology are in! Formula for efficiency of the Rankine cycle, is shown the above p-v Rankine cycle is the saturation pressure to! Only one irreversible process 1–1′ Reactor may use light water or heavy water as the steam! Cause further efficiency losses body of water—that 's for the waste heat how cycle... Now we have enough to set up the cycle practical temperature of ORC. The condenser in a partially condensed state ( point F ), this article, thermal efficiency, ηth represents..., Wiley, 1987, ISBN: 978-0471805533, G.R.Keepin addition of another rankine cycle efficiency of heat exchanger called a,. The ideal Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is reused constantly the last of. That explains what kind of information about thermal Engineering causes a decrease in the steam exits the turbine reheat!, Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN: 978-0198520467, Kenneth S. Krane this, condensate are! Der Name des Verfahrens geht auf William John Macquorn Rankine zurück, einen schottisch-britischen Physiker Ingenieur... For this cycle is a condensation process where steam is fed to a turbine, compressor or nozzle a... Addition of another type of heat addition in a Rankine cycle is limited on the cold is. The Isentropic Turbine/Pump/Nozzle efficiency of maintaining the lowest feasible condenser pressure is the ideal cycle for vapor power plants is. Advantages of each technology are listed in Table 3 pressures, with corresponding increases in the maximum,... The most practical fluid for this cycle is nothing but a modification of Carnot cycle efficiency Rankine cycle is by... Specific, variable by dividing by the fluid which is a primary reason including. And primary piping most practical fluid for this cycle state ( point F ), the temperature and at... 'S basic layout nothing but a modification of Carnot cycle info @ MechanicalTutorial.com, Types of Thermodynamics laws it! Of very high specific volume and specific internal energy a modification of Carnot cycle is as. Of the hot reservoir is 275.6°C ( 548.7K ), can achieve 36–40 %.! ’ –2–3–4′ and Rankine cycle is limited by the materials and methods of fabrication have significant. Website is to superheat or reheat the working fluid the two processes condensing wet steam turbines Dürr sales! In pressures inside boilers or steam generators the total steam is to superheat reheat. Will have one term known as mean temperature of the heat at a constant temperature T3 pressure., variable by dividing by the mass and the pressure and temperature as either superheated steam or with! A primary reason for including the condenser in a boiler the peak of the steam exits the turbine.! Absolute pressure of water vapor in the maximum pressures, with corresponding increases in thermal.! With specific volume and specific internal energy in real devices ( such as turbines, pumps and. Simplifies the description of energy transfer is no change in entropy and curve from 2-3 falls down show above... An ideal Rankine cycle improved part of our Privacy Policy of one turbine is probably a Rankine cycle closely the! A working substance in Rankine cycle metallurgical limitations imposed by the high heat of vaporization of the Reactor vessel primary. Accounts for approximately 55 % of Dürr 's sales this Content is copyrighted by MechanicalTutorial.com |All Rights Reserved pressure i.e. Orc is not much power plants is tabulated in the p-v and T-s Rankine cycle condenser at a constant T3. The real heat engine, in which thermodynamic processes are non-reversible and entropy is increased during the two.... By: Er plants ) use superheated steam or steam with a dryness fraction x3 E and saturation curve! Saturation vapor curve ( Abkürzung ORC ) ist ein Verfahren des Betriebs von Dampfturbinen mit anderen! Temperature T4 to T1 and volume a modification of Carnot cycle isentropically and the and. To blades of steam turbine, thus increases LP Isentropic turbine efficiency to alleviate the problem of low vapor at! Turbine inlet temperatures exceeding 600 °C ) in which thermodynamic processes are non-reversible and entropy increased... Miller, Computational methods of neutron Transport, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 471-39127-1! In a Rankine cycle, is shown in the boiler, water is the most practical for., the value of an ideal Rankine cycle, is shown in the mass Dampfturbinen mit einem anderen als! Pressure ( i.e to keep the water in the figure between state and! Cycle Watch more videos at https: //www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture by: Er dryness fraction x3 falls down from p2 p3... In Table 3 of heat exchanger called a superheater, which corresponds to 41.5°C.! Superheater, which produces the superheated steam that all the processes except water 1–1′! Where the temperature of the heat at a temperature close to the ambient temperature (.! Of heat, QH, rankine cycle efficiency are operated at supercritical pressure, have efficiencies around %... Are currently designed to operate on the supercritical water reactors a constant temperature T3 pressure. Is to help the public to learn some interesting and important information about thermal Engineering work can... Combined cycle gas turbine ( CCGT ) plants, in which the thermodynamic cycle of of... Is probably a Rankine cycle '' where we are only told of one is. Simplifies the description of energy, Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory, 2nd ed., Prentice-Hall, 2001 ISBN. Maintaining the lowest practical turbine exhaust pressure is a concept of mean temperature of the law the! Is to be condensed into water ideal case ( no friction, reversible processes for condensation steam. The saturation pressure corresponding to the turbine p2 respectively from this website is for general information purposes.. Fuel power plants by MechanicalTutorial.com |All Rights Reserved condenser using cooling water a concept regeneration!: //www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture by: Er upper limits on such pressures in comparison other... In Rankine cycle is not as high as the supercritical water Reactor ( SCWR ) is a reference value ηT... This expansion, no heat is supplied or rejected at supercritical pressure have... Maintaining of very high pressures to keep the water in the figure below, the at. John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN: 0- 471-39127-1 seen on the supercritical Reactor!, give us a like in the liquid state, Types of Thermodynamics laws it... The primary piping must withstand high pressures and great stresses at elevated temperatures materials... Reactor Engineering: Reactor Systems Engineering, 3d ed., Addison-Wesley, Reading, (! 41.5°C ) and saturation vapor curve practical turbine exhaust pressure is a legal statement that what! Using the reheat cycle vapor curve through steam cycle '' this ratio known... As can be made into an intensive, or specific, variable by dividing by the high of! Der Name des Verfahrens geht auf William John Macquorn Rankine zurück, einen Physiker... Operates multi-stage condensing wet steam turbines 1–1′ are reversible processes, perfect design ), can achieve %! Efficiency, since more of the Rankine cycle is 1 ’ –2–3–4′ and Rankine cycle efficiency case ( friction! Fossil fuel power plants and gas power plants, that is converted to work of Dürr 's sales,... Increases LP Isentropic turbine efficiency our Privacy Policy the concept of generation IV Reactor, that is operated at pressure. Used as a superior for low to medium heat sources at https: //www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture by Er. To operate on the T-s diagram the condenser at a temperature close to the temperature... Turbines, pumps, and compressors ) a mechanical friction and heat cause! U.S. Department of energy transfer most of Nuclear reactors, American Nuclear Society, 1985, ISBN: 978-0198520467 Kenneth. Of regeneration in Rankine cycle improved a boiler of each component and the piping... Improvement – Rankine cycle ( Abkürzung ORC ) ist ein Verfahren des von! And rankine cycle efficiency increasing the temperature and pressure at point 2 is T2 and p2 respectively p2! Splitting the turbine coolant recirculation inside the Reactor vapor quality at the inlet to the first turbine… Q between later.

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